The overall strategy that a researcher chooses to address all the different parts of their study in a logical and clear manner is known as a research design.
So, what is research design in research paper? A research design is a general plan explaining what one looks to do so as to answer the research question. Generally, it is a detailed outline of how research or an investigation will take place including; how data will be collected, which tools will be employed and how they will be used, and the ways through with the data will be analyzed.
It lays out the method you use to collect, measure, and analyze information. It states that you do this logically and coherently to ensure that you thoroughly address the research problem with which you are dealing. There are numerous types of research design including:
- Action Study Research Design
- Case Study Research Design
- Casual Research Design
- Cohort Research Design
- Cross-Sectional Research Design
- Correlational Research Design
- Descriptive Research Design
- Experimental Research Design
- Exploratory Research Design
- Historical Research Design
- Longitudinal Research Design
- Observational Research Design
- Philosophical Research Design
- Qualitative Research Design
- Quantitative Research Design
- Sequential Research Design
The research paper design you choose depends on the research problem. You should analyze the problem carefully and consider it from numerous perspectives. You may consider using a mixed methods research design which is a combination of any two designs listed above. But you must choose a type of research design that is strong and will make your project progress smoothly.
Example Of A Nursing Research Design
To assess the links between professional satisfaction, job satisfaction, and contributing factors using a quantitative approach, an appropriate method is to gain use questionnaires or surveys that provide numerical data from the sample. To achieve an appropriate sample, a sampling plan should be developed. In this case, the population of concern will be identified. This will be nursing staff members, possibly across a wide range of departments to gain a better insight into the links overall. A stratified sampling method would be appropriate here to ensure that the sample is made up of sub-populations that are in line with the sub-populations of the total: the strata should include gender, number of years in nursing, department, and any other factors that could be confounding variables. This will ensure that the sample is representative of the population of interest. In a population of 1000 nurses, a confidence interval of five, and a confidence level of 99%, the sample size needed is 400. Inclusion criteria will include: nursing staff working at the hospital, ability to speak the language that the survey is administered in, and those that have given informed consent. Exclusion criteria will be visiting nursing staff, staff who are not nurses, and those that do not hold relevant nursing criteria.
Sampling Plan: Qualitative
A more appropriate methodology for qualitative approaches is to use interviews or focus groups. This means that the sample size can be much smaller, often as low as ten. In this case, the sampling plan will have the same population of concern, but a different approach to sampling can be used. It may be more appropriate to use quota, self-selection sampling here, as nursing staff need to be willing to give up some time to respond. This has drawbacks, including self-selection bias, but it would be unethical to force nursing staff to participate in the project, especially considering interviews can take one hour or more. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are as above.
How to Write a Research Design Proposal
For most research problems, you will have to make some tradeoffs. One design can be strong in some areas and weak in other areas. This is the reason many students choose to select more than one design to gather all the information accurately and effectively they need to address the problem. This is one of the first things you should know about how to write research design and methods section.
- Consider Your Practicalities and Priorities
What do we mean when we say you need to think about practicalities and priorities? Another thing to know about how to write design and methodology of the research is asking several questions before settling on one or two methodologies. You will not have the time or resources to conduct tests using several research designs, so you need to write down and answer precisely what your priorities are and the practical nature of your study.
A good place to start is at the library where you have access to other academic studies in your field. You can find similar studies and look at published samples that have been approved by experts in the field. You can also get a sense of the number of resources you have available. Pre-planning is a great way of making sure your project stays on track.
- Determine the Kind of Information You Need
The next to know about how to write a qualitative research design is figuring out the kind of information or data you need to answer the research problem. There are two places where you get this: through primary and secondary data. In your research study, you get original data through experiments, interviews, and surveys. This is information you analyze and incorporate into your research finding.
Your study will also incorporate information gathered by someone else in previous studies. This type of data is available in libraries and online databases where you can look at national statistics, official records, and publications from academic and government sources.
- Identify How You Are Going to Collect Information
Once you know the kind of information you need to gather (qualitative and quantitative) you need to decide where, when, and how you will gather it. How to write a research design requires you to describe your research methods. This means putting in detail the materials, procedures, tools, and techniques you will use and apply. You also need to point out the criteria you will use to choose your participants and sources. (For example, how many participants will you need to fill out services to get a good method to sample).
- Decide How You Are Going to Analyze the Information
Another thing you need to know about how to write a research design relates to the way you are going to analyze the information you collect. The process of analysis is the last step you need to develop your research design. Numerous computer applications will sort through information and retrieve what you need to answer the research problem (For example, Access and Excel). Identify the ones you will use and state this in the research design.
- Draft Your Research Design as You Would Other Sections
Now you can start writing the first draft. You should approach this like you would other academic assignments. Use a draft that lists all the sub-sections you need to address in the research design. Be clear and concise. The research design should not include your opinions. It must show the reader an exact description of the way you conducted your study.
- Revise Your Research Design After Some Time Away
Hindsight is one of the best things that can come from separating yourself from your assignment for a few days. We recommend students remove themselves completely from their work to get a mental break. The distance will help them rethink their writing and make changes that improve the overall quality of an assignment.
The trick is to do stay away a few days instead of just a few hours. The time away from any piece of writing will allow for more self-evaluation that is objective. Many students will find ways to remove, add, or rearrange words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs that make their assignments stronger.
- Edit and Proofread Your Research Design for Perfection
These two activities are not interchangeable. Editing focuses on deep issues like correcting sentence constructions and word choices. A thorough editing session will improve things like clarity, readability, and tone. Proofreading focuses on details like grammar, punctuation, and misspellings. It will also look at page numbering, formatting, alignment, and visual elements.
Both activities are important stages of the writing process. A great editor will begin his or her work during the revising process. A great proofread will also begin his or her work during the editing process. While they may overlap you should always treat them as two separate tasks and designate enough time to do each without distraction.
- Have a Colleague Review Your Work for Feedback
Having a colleague or peer review your work is an important step to the academic writing process. A person or a group of people that understands your field and the high standard of researching and writing that comes with putting together a great research paper can valuable toward your success at the collegiate and graduate levels. Even if you can only show your work to one person for a few hours, his or her feedback can help you make changes to improve the overall quality of your research design.
Here are some questions you should consider before asking someone to review your work:
- Do they understand the research subject and/or topic?
- Do they know the professor or panel that will grade your work?
- Have they submitted research studies in the past?
- Do they have great to excellent grades when it comes to research?
- Are they committed to providing you constructive criticism and feedback?
What to Do If You Can’t Do the Research Design
You may not have enough time to create this section, especially when you have a short deadline. On these occasions, it is a good idea to find a template for a research design paper. You can find templates online or can refer to published research papers in academic journals. The formats are standard so as long as you apply your words to a template that matches your design approach.
If you need more information or assistance learning about how to write a research design section, our customer support team can point you to more resources or put you in contact with one of our academic writing and editing experts. Each expert has earned either a bachelor’s or master’s degree and specialize in specific disciplines. You can rest assured that you will be assigned someone that knows your field inside and outside and can give you the writing research design and methodology help that you need to excel academically.